Strategic Base Survey of Existing Conditions
In addition to assessing the damage done to the urban fabric, historic housing zones, individual monuments, and infrastructure facilities, further analysis is required to evaluate disrupted social structures, urban functions and cultural activities.
Such surveys should be initiated as soon as possible (even before the end of hostilities), continuously updated, and refined through progressive cycles so as to provide more and more detail. The research should include the following subjects:
- Morphological analysis of earlier conditions, reflecting the pre-war status of historic and modern districts.
- Identification of remaining, typologically homogeneous zones (historic and modern).
- General and detailed damage assessments within the homogeneous zones.
- Inventory of surviving public and religious buildings and major monuments, and assessment of their functional and physical condition.
- Listing of priority buildings to be stabilised and restored at a later stage.
- Survey of infrastructure and public space conditions.
- Evaluation of emergency demand for temporary housing, intermediate public facilities and basic infrastructure repair.
Identification of Homogeneous Zones
Zoning – in this case the definition of morphologically homogeneous urban areas – is a basic tool that can be used to preserve and revive as much as possible of a historic city’s heritage. It can also ensure that devastated areas are redeveloped in a way that is compatible with the traditional urban fabric. Zoning helps to break down the overall planning process into consistent segments that are easier to manage.
A list of homogeneous zones reflects consistent urban forms, but in order to present a more complete picture, a matrix is needed as well in case different types of intervention are called for within an otherwise homogeneous area (e.g. local new infill within a dominant conservation area). In principle, a distinction is made between the following types of homogeneous areas:
Zone of major monuments and historic sites: Arguably, these are the areas least affected by the threat of rapid urban change because of their recognised special status –they belong to the government and are subject to the jurisdiction of the antiquities authorities. These zones are governed by undisputed conservation or reconstruction principles and are the most likely to attract international funding through UNESCO and international donors. Urgent measures to be taken by the antiquities authorities include site protection, the collection of dispersed building fragments, documentation of earlier conditions, stabilisation and archaeological research.
Zone of historic souks and public street network: Souks have a combined historic and commercial character and must be made functional again as soon as possible, in order both to kick-start the local economy and to re-establish the image of the old city by restoring its central public spaces.
Close interaction between the local government, antiquities authorities and private merchants is necessary in order to balance different needs, such as archaeological research, proper conservation/restoration modes, and profitable commercial use. In certain cases, typologically adapted redevelopment may be desirable or necessary so that contemporary functional needs can be accommodated. Co-funding for the rehabilitation of historic souks can be sought from international donors.
In order to preserve the distinctive qualities of residential streets and alleyways, their treatment has to be given careful consideration against the backdrop of the historic urban fabric’s morphology. The dominant pedestrian character needs to be protected, as does the proper articulation of transitions between public and private space. Vehicular access points and service lanes need to be re-established (or newly planned) in a way that preserves the integrity of the residential urban fabric.
Zone of traditional residential fabric: Conserving and rehabilitating what is left of the historic residential quarters is a crucial factor in preserving the identity of war-stricken historic cities. It also ranks among the most difficult tasks because it requires technical control over a multitude of micro-scale interventions involving hundreds of private house owners and tenants. Urgent emergency repairs have to be done in a manner that does not adversely affect long-term conservation goals relating to traditional architectural typologies and building materials.
In many cases, ruined houses will have to be substantially restored or rebuilt, and on some devastated plots new infill will have to be designed in keeping with traditional structures, such as dominant courtyard typologies. Thorough control, guidance and assistance will be required in this continuous rehabilitation process. Pro-active assistance can be given by way of guidelines and manuals.
Temporary emergency solutions often have to be accepted for an initial period before being replaced later by more appropriate structures. For the most frequently occurring repair tasks, house owners have to be given instructions and possibly access to a ‘materials bank’. It is hoped that incentives, such as small loans and grants, for appropriate reconstruction can be provided by donors interested in urban rehabilitation.
Zone of modern enclaves within an old city: The repair and reconstruction of damaged modern apartment and office blocks, which are situated on traffic routes that impinge on historic cities, has to be closely monitored in order to avoid the unauthorised addition of upper floors or other abusive construction activities.
At the same time, other models of rebuilding destroyed modern blocks should be explored, particularly in the vicinity of surviving parts of the historic fabric. For this purpose, evolutionary intermediate typologies should be developed that combine low-height, linear street-front buildings with integrated pedestrian arcades. Buildings following this pattern can be positioned back-to-back against khan-like courtyard structures to fill voids and merge with the adjacent traditional urban texture.
Zone of comprehensive redevelopment, consisting of destroyed areas of the former urban fabric: Many war-stricken historic cities feature smaller and larger expanses of contiguous, irretrievably ruined plots (both within the traditional urban fabric and in the ‘modern enclaves’) that form open scars within the old city. Reconstructing their precise former condition may not be feasible or desirable, but these areas provide an opportunity to cater for hitherto unforeseen evolutionary needs of the old city. New functions and buildings can be introduced here in a contemporary manner, yet in harmony with the traditional architectural language of the adjacent historic fabric.
It is important that this unique window for adaptive urban renewal is not closed by abandoning plots of land or development rights to speculative investors who care only about their own economic benefit and not about the architectural and social context.
Local authorities should therefore seek to prohibit intervention in such areas until appropriate redevelopment options have been agreed. Once a programme is adopted, some areas could be redeveloped on the basis of an architectural competition.
Appropriate legal mechanisms will have to exist if public-private investment partnerships (possibly supported by international donors) and the interests of current land owners are to be accommodated as well.
Matrix of Plot-by-Plot Interventions
This matrix is a major tool of the reconstruction directory and is to be applied on a plot-by-plot basis. It complements the homogeneous urban zones that are used to define area-wide priority modes of intervention.
The matrix provides planners with a flexible decision-making instrument for determining the appropriate type of intervention for each component of the urban fabric, based on given qualities and existing conditions. Specific conclusions concerning suitable modes of reconstruction are reached by interconnecting (matching) two scaled parameters, namely the degree of historic and architectural importance and the extent of physical deterioration.
To facilitate the decision-making process a range of prototypical criteria can be established for both parameters:
Degree of historic and architectural importance
- Extremely high (e.g. major monuments)
- High (e.g. minor monuments, important houses)
- Medium (e.g. ordinary historic houses)
- Contextual (e.g. transformed historic houses, those of no specific interest)
- Not historic (e.g. recent buildings of moderate height)
- Disturbing (e.g. modern structures detrimental to the historic urban fabric)
Extent of deterioration
- No relevant damage
- Minor damage
- Moderate damage
- Severe damage
- Irreversible damage
The appropriate type and mode of intervention for each building is determined by correlating these two sets of criteria. Ideally, the relevant criteria for both parameters are recorded, marked and overlapped on a cadastral map.
In emergency situations, however, planners can proceed case by case, as dictated by urgent needs. In certain instances it may also be useful to consider the past and future functional use of buildings in order to evaluate the potential for their adaptive re-use together with the suitable reconstruction mode.
The specific types of recommended intervention depend on the place in the matrix where the criteria meet, as illustrated by the following examples:
Extremely high historic/architectural importance
- Minor damage: Full conservation recommended
- Severe damage: Partial reconstruction recommended
- Irreversible damage: Full reconstruction possible if documentation available
Contextual architectural importance
- Moderate damage: Repair according to typological guidelines
- Irreversible damage: Typologically compatible replacement (infill)
Disturbing modern structures
- Moderate damage: Repair so as to minimise disturbing features
- Severe damage: Demolish and replace in a morphologically compatible manner
- Irreversible damage: Redevelop with introduction of new functions, particularly in the case of relatively large destroyed areasMore information on the different types of intervention is provided below, and further guidelines are provided in other parts of the toolkit.
These are just a few theoretical examples of how the type of intervention can be determined by referencing the inherent architectural values and existing physical conditions. In practice, the method may have to be adapted according to the circumstances of each specific city and project.
In an emergency situation it is impossible immediately to produce and implement appropriate planning concepts.
In order to allow the planning strategy to unfold step by step, legal instruments are needed to enable the relevant authorities to keep important areas and plots on hold until an informed reconstruction decision is taken or an action plan is adopted. This will help to protect culturally sensitive archaeological and conservation zones and to preserve future development opportunities areas that have been totally destroyed. Imposing a temporary ‘freeze’ on key areas can provide the basis for a consistent emergency planning process.
Special legal provisions may also be needed to resolve blocked real estate situations (arising from the absence of land owners or a multiple division of property rights) that are hampering integrated reconstruction projects in critical locations. Establishing legal back-up for the reconstruction directory should therefore encompass the following activities:
- Confirm the general validity of the World Heritage Convention and similar charters.
- Protect archaeologically important zones.
- Define emergency decrees and implementation modes to enable the government to impose temporary development bans for critical plots and zones, and thus prevent harmful or premature reconstruction.
- Invoke existing rules and regulations to enforce land-use policies that are compatible with the historic fabric, while giving consideration to the emergency situation.
- Issue guidelines to facilitate adaptive repair and restoration activities on individual plots.
- Support implementation of action area plans involving multiple stakeholders.
- Provide legal mechanisms to enable owners of devastated plots to participate in joint shareholder companies, so that overarching redevelopment projects and action areas can be initiated.
- Formulate expropriation and compensation regulations to resolve cases involving multiple, unreachable, or deceased land owners.